Faye S. Taxman


Violence presents unique challenges to individuals, communities, and the justice system. The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model is framed as addressing how to respond to individuals with various forms of violent or violent-related behaviors. The emphasis is on linking individuals to appropriate services and using services and programs that can assist the individuals with learning to manage their aggressive behaviors. Much of the techniques involve addressing situational responses that occur in natural community environments; the models for delivering services and facilitating change tend to be limited to group-based therapy sessions that are not necessarily adaptable to these environmental cues (where emotions and situations are deemed to be high). Some progress has been made in adaptive therapies that extend past group sessions using interrupters, navigators, or others. But, given the complexities of community environments, there is a need for a systemic RNR framework that looks at the issues related to community capacity and relationship factors that affect the ability of the community to be responsive. This Article will describe the systemic RNR framework and use an example from St. Louis, Missouri, in terms of the implications for improving outcomes on how best to reduce violence.