Some forms of elder abuse are really a continuation or increase of earlier abuse and reflect a pattern of coercive tactics to maintain control. The authors go into great detail in recommending the L.A.B.O.R. model. Look for signs, Ask questions, Believe the victim, Offer support, and Refer. Many signs and signals of abuse are given to aid in evaluating seemingly abusive situations.
Brandl, Bonnie and Rozwadowski, Julie
"Responding to Domestic Abuse in Later Life,"
Marquette Elder's Advisor: Vol. 5
, Article 9.
Available at: https://scholarship.law.marquette.edu/elders/vol5/iss1/9