The purpose of this Study is to calculate retirement account tax expenditures by states. States with income taxes that allow tax deferral of retirement account contributions and investment earnings lose nearly $20 billion in revenue. This Study uses a variety of data sources, including state reports from their executive agencies and known estimation techniques to calculate the amount of tax credits that a worker in each state would receive if the deferrals were converted to a refundable tax credit. The average credit under these estimation techniques and calculations would be $172.
Teresa Ghilarducci and Ismael Cid-Martinez, Transforming Federal and State Retirement Tax Deductions to Refundable Tax Credits, 17 Marq. Ben. & Soc. Welfare L. Rev. 87 (2015).